DEPARTMENT OF ADMINISTRATION

This Department, consisting of four sections, the General Affairs Division, the Accounting Division, the Business Operation Division, and the Business Administration Division, is in charge of general institutional affairs as a supporting section for research promotion to help efficiently carry out assay and research activities.
In addition, the department has the editorial office of Japanese Journal of Infectious Diseases published by this institute and the library which is to collect and preserve books in the fields of virology, bacteriology, parasitology, pathology, immunology, epidemiology, etc.

DIRECTOR FOR PLANNING AND COORDINATION

The Director is responsible for comprehensive coordination of planning and implementation of research projects.
In particular, the Director comprehensively coordinates the planning and implementation of research projects within the National Institute of Infectious Diseases, approves liaison and coordination with relevant governmental agencies, and coordinates research projects with other research institutes.

DEPARTMENT OF VIROLOGY I

The Department of Virology I is engaged in research, the quality control of vaccines, and reference activities related to hemorrhagic fever viruses, arboviruses, neuroviruses, herpesviruses, Rickettsia and Chlamydia. The research is directed towards (i) biological characterization of viruses, Rickettsia and Chlamydia, (ii) the development of laboratory diagnostic methods, (iii) molecular and sero-epidemiology, (iv) disease pathogenesis, and (v) the development of new vaccines.

LABORATORY OF SPECIAL PATHOGENS
  • Laboratory diagnosis and virological studies on hemorrhagic fever viruses including Ebola, Marburg, Lassa, and Crimean-Congo hemorrhagic fever viruses and variola virus.
  • Molecular study on the pathogenesis of hantaviruses.
  • Development of diagnostic laboratory methods for emerging and re-emerging viral diseases.
  • Reference laboratory activities on poxviruses.

LABORATORY OF ARBOVIRUSES
  • Development of diagnostic laboratory methods for arbovirus infections.
  • Molecular epidemiological studies on arboviruses.
  • Studies on the immune responses induced by arbovirus infection and vaccination.
  • Quality control of Japanese encephalitis vaccine.
  • Quality control of yellow fever vaccine.
  • Reference laboratory activity on arboviruses.
  • This laboratory has been designated as a global specialized laboratory by WHO.

LABORATORY OF NEUROVIROLOGY
  • Molecular pathogenesis of rabies virus.
  • Molecular epidemiological studies on lyssaviruses.
  • Development of new rabies vaccine and quality control of the current vaccine.
  • Laboratory diagnosis of progressive multifocal leukoencephalopathy.
  • Pathophysiological study on polyomavirus infections.

LABORATORY OF HERPESVIRUSES
  • Studies on prophylaxis, treatment, and diagnosis of the diseases caused by human herpesviruses.
  • Studies on replication, gene expression, and pathogenesis of human herpesviruses.
  • Molecular and sero-epidemiology of human herpes-viruses.
  • Studies on live varicella zoster virus (VZV) vaccine and VZV intradermal test antigen for quality control of these products.

LABORATORY OF RICKETTSIA AND CHLAMYDIA
  • Development of diagnostic laboratory methods for rickettsial and chlamydial infections.
  • Molecular and sero-epidemiological studies on Rickettsia and Chlamydia.
  • Study of the pathogenesis of rickettsial and chlamydial infections.
  • Reference laboratory activities on Rickettsia and Chlamydia.


DEPARTMENT OF VIROLOGY II

Research in the department is directed to investi-gations of biological characterization and pathogenesis of the following viruses; diarrhea viruses (rotavirus, Norwalk-like virus, etc.), enteroviruses, poxviruses, tumor viruses (papillomaviruses, polyomaviruses, etc.) and hepatitis viruses. Tumorigenesis in relation to viral infection is also studied in the department. Developments of new vaccines and diagnostics for these viral diseases are included in the main lines of research. Research projects using various viral vectors (baculovirus, adenovirus, vesicular stomatitis virus, vaccinia virus etc.) are on going. The department is assigned for both national- and international reference laboratories.

LABORATORY OF GASTROENTERITIS VIRUSES
  1. Isolation, characterization and molecular diagnosis of novel diarrhea viruses
  2. Research on diagnosis and prevention of calicivirus infection
  3. Molecular virology of gastroenteritis viruses
  4. Research and quality control of polio vaccines

LABORATORY OF ENTEROVIRUSES
  1. Laboratory diagnosis and molecular epidemiological analysis for the Global Polio Eradication Initiative
  2. Virological and epidemiological analysis of vaccine-derived polioviruses
  3. Laboratory diagnosis and reference activities for enterovirus infections
  4. Molecular virological studies on the pathogenicity of polio and enteroviruses

LABORATORY OF TUMOR VIRUSES
  1. Molecular studies on hepatocarcinogenesis of hepatitis viruses B and C
  2. Molecular studied on carcinogenesis of human cancer-related viruses
  3. Isolation and characterization of novel cancer-related viruses

LABORATORY OF HEPATITIS VIRUSES I
  1. Molecular virology of hepatitis viruses, mainly blood borne hepatitis viruses
  2. Isolation and characterization of novel hepatitis viruses

LABORATORY OF HEPATITIS VIRUSES II
  1. Molecular pathogenesis and etiological studies on enterically transmitted hepatitis viruses
  2. Quality control and studies of hepatitis vaccines A and B
  3. Research on diagnosis and prevention of hepatitis E virus infection

DEPARTMENT OF VIROLOGY III

This laboratory is responsible for studies on measles virus as well as the quality control of measles vaccines. The laboratory has RRL and GSL functions and carries out molecular and epidemiological studies on measles. The laboratory plays an important role in developing diagnostic methods for measles, and provides technical support for measles virus isolation and characterization.

LABORATORY OF RUBELLA VIRUS
This laboratory is responsible for studies on rubella virus and the quality control of rubella vaccines. Molecular and epidemiological studies on rubella are carried out. The laboratory also has RRL and GSL responsibilities toward the regional and global control of rubella.

LABORATORY OF MUMPS VIRUS
This laboratory is responsible for studies on mumps virus and the quality control of mumps vaccines. Molecular and epidemiological studies of mumps viruses and studies toward the development of neurovirulence tests for mumps virus and mumps vaccines are carried out. The functions of gene products of paramyxoviruses and their relationships with viral pathogenicity are also investigated.

LABORATORY OF ACUTE VIRAL RESPIRATORY INFECTIONS AND CYTOKINES
This laboratory performs molecular and epidemiological studies of viruses that cause acute respiratory infections (except for influenza viruses). The laboratory is also responsible for the quality control of IFN products, and carries out investigations into the biochemical functions of cytokines (especially IFN) in viral infections. Studies toward the development of a diagnostic kit and vaccines against SARS are also performed as a network member of WHO collaborative multi-centre research project on SARS diagnosis.


DEPARTMENT OF BACTERIOLOGY I

The research activities in this department are as follows; classification, identification, serotyping and molecular typing of pathogenic bacteria described below for the diagnosis and investigation of community- and hospital- acquired bacterial infections. Molecular analysis of virulence of such bacteria has been intensively made, which outcomes are applied to the development of new methods for early diagnosis, and effective treatment and prevention.

LABORATORY OF ENTERIC INFECTION I
  1. Development of molecular epidemiological methods for enteric bacterial infections.
  2. Molecular interaction of enteric bacteria with host cells.
  3. Phage typing for Salmonella spp. and enterohemorrhagic E. coli.

LABORATORY OF ENTERIC INFECTION II
  1. Classification, identification, serotyping and etiology of family of Vibrionaceae and Shigella.
  2. Phage typing and etiology of Salmonella enterica serovar Typhi and Paratyphi A.
  3. Molecular analysis of Shigella, Salmonella enterica serovar Typhi and Vibrio infections.

LABORATORY OF EMERGING INFECTION
  1. Molecular analysis of Legionella infection.
  2. Molecular analysis and surveillance of Streptococcus pneumoniae infection.
  3. Molecular analysis of invasive group A streptococcal infection.

LABORATORY OF SYSTEMIC INFECTION
  1. Development of diagnostic materials for Lyme disease, leptospirosis, meningococcal meningitis and plague.
  2. Molecular analysis of virulence of Borrelia, Leptospira, and Neisseria meningitidis.

LABORATORY OF UROGENITAL INFECTION
  1. Development and evaluation of diagnostic materials for syphilis.
  2. Molecular analysis of virulence and diagnosis of drug resistance in urogenital infectious bacteria.

LABORATORY OF ORAL BACTERIAL INFECTION
  1. Development of diagnostic and preventive measures against oral bacterial infectious diseases.
  2. Molecular analysis of pathogenesis of pathogenic oral bacteria.


DEPARTMENT OF BACTERIOLOGY II

This department is involved with prevention, diagnosis, and treatment of life-threatening bacterial infections including diphtheria, tetanus, botulism, pertussis, tuberculosis, and mycoplasmosis, as well as opportunistic and chronic infections including relevant references. Studies on molecular mechanisms on pathogenesis and antimicrobial resistance are conducted. Quality control of bacterial vaccines such as DTaP, BCG, and PPD, and antimicrobial agents, together with their essential standard materials as well as relevant references are under the administration of this department. This department also has jurisdiction over statistical expertise and sterility assurance of all biological products. Moreover, this department is responsible for the promotion of international collaborations on bacterial infection control measures and quality control of bacterial products including vaccines.

LABORATORY OF ANTIBIOTICS AND RESISTANCE
Studies are conducted on pathogenicity of bacteria that cause opportunistic or chronic infectious diseases as well as their etiologies. Molecular analyses of resistance-mechanisms to antimicrobial agents in bacteria are undertaken. This laboratory is in charge of the quality control of antibiotics and their standard materials.

LABORATORY OF MYCOPLASMAS AND HAEMOPHILUS
This laboratory pursues studies on molecular epidemiology, the establishment of laboratory test methods and analyses of pathogenic factors for infections caused by Mycoplasma spp., >I>Haemophilus influenzae, and Clostridium difficile.
t also has the responsibility for quality control of Haemophilus influenzae type b (Hib) vaccine as well as consultation regarding sterility tests for biological products.

LABORATORY OF BACTERIAL TOXINS, TOXOIDS AND ANTITOXINS
Studies on Corynebacterium diphtheriae, Clostridium tetani, C. botulinum and the other anaerobic toxin producing bacteria that cause acute life threatening infectious diseases are carried out. This laboratory is in charge of the quality control of vaccines and standard materials essential for prevention, diagnosis and treatment of infectious diseases caused by the abovementioned toxin-producing bacteria.

LABORATORY OF TUBERCULOSIS CONTROL
Biological, biochemical and immunological studies are conducted on mycobacterial components and products for vaccine development, diagnosis and treatment of tuberculosis and non-tuberculous diseases. Studies on improvement of BCG and PPD products, as well as evaluation and quality control of these products are also undertaken by this laboratory.

LABORATORY OF PERTUSSIS AND ENDOTOXIN CONTROL
This laboratory conducts bacteriological, epidemiological and etiopathological studies to prevent infections by Bordetella pertussis and related organisms. It is also responsible for quality control of pertussis vaccines based on relevant tests and evaluations, as well as improvement, development and standardization of test methods. This laboratory also undertakes endotoxin tests and specific toxicity tests of biological products along with related investigations. It also provides overall statistical expertise for quality controls at the Institute.


DEPARTMENT OF PARASITOLOGY

The department carries out basic studies on virulence mechanisms of parasites, unique metabolic and cellular mechanisms to develop new drugs and vaccines. We also conduct a wide range of applied researches to establish epidemiological, molecular epidemiological, diagnostic, and preventive measures against infections caused by protozoan and helminthic parasites. We also receive clinical samples for diagnosis and consultations on diagnosis, prevention, and treatment. We are engaged in research collaborations with various institutes and universities worldwide.

LABORATORY OF PROTOZOA
The division studies on protozoan pathogens causing water- and food-born intestinal infections, including Entamoeba histolytica, Giardia lamblia, Cryptosporidia, and Microsporidia. The laboratory also works on other protozoan infections by free-living Acanthamoeba and Negleria, and parasitic Trypanosoma, Leishmania, Plasmodium, and Toxoplasma.

LABORATORY OF PLATHELMINTHES AND NEMATODES
The division conducts researches to develop molecular and serological diagnostic methods and carries out epidemiological studies on food-borne and zoonotic helminthiases including anisakiasis, paragonimiasis, metagonimiasis, diphyllobothiriasis, taeniasis/cysticercosis, echinococcosis, baylisascariasis and toxocariasis. We also receive clinical specimens for diagnosis and classification from hospitals and institutions.

LABORATORY OF IMPORTED PARASITIC DISEASES
The division works on identification and characterization of unique cellular, biochemical, and immunological events in the parasitic infections caused by Plasmodium, Toxoplasma, Entamoeba, and Schistosoma. We participate-international control programs of malaria and schistosomiasis. We also receive consultations on diagnosis and treatment of these infections from hospitals and universities.


DEPARTMENT OF PATHOLOGY

The current activities of the Department of Pathology direct to the research of parasitic, bacterial, viral and prion infectious diseases in the field of pathology and immunity. The pathogenesis of infectious diseases is analyzed mainly through the host and the outcomes should be useful for the diagnosis and treatment of the diseases. Much emphasis is laid on the analysis of human infectious diseases using human specimens obtained by biopsy, surgical intervention and autopsy collected from domestic and foreign institutions, and using experimental animal models such as mice and monkeys. We have been investigating the infectious diseases pathology using histology, immunohistochemistry, in situ hybridization, ultrastructure, and molecular biological methods and with their combination. We are also studying the mucosal immune responses of host against microbial agents, vaccine safety, gene function of host and microorganism, and development of new vaccines. Neurovirulence test of attenuated vaccines using monkeys and pathological tests for emerging and reemerging diseases, such as immunohistochemical confirmatory test for bovine spongioform encephalopathy, have been conducted.

LABORATORY OF DIAGNOSTIC PATHOLOGY
Diagnostic pathology investigation of the infectious diseases.

LABORATORY OF INFECTIOUS PATHOLOGY
Pathological investigation on animal models of the infectious diseases. Neurovirulence test of attenuated vaccines is conducted.

LABORATORY OF EXPERIMENTAL PATHOLOGY
Experimental pathology investigation for the infectious diseases and related malignancies.

LABORATORY OF MOLECULAR PATHOLOGY
Molecular investigation for diagnosis, intervention and prevention of the infectious diseases.


DEPARTMENT OF IMMUNOLOGY

The overall objective in Department of Immunology is to clarify the mechanism of host defense against infectious pathogens and develop immune-based diagnostics, and therapeutic and preventive interventions in infectious diseases. Because the field of immunology is interdisciplinary, Department of Immunology promotes interdepartmental, national and international collaborative research.

LABORATORY OF VIRAL INFECTION AND IMMUNITY
To clarify the pathogenesis of viral disease from the aspect of host responses, including diseases due to human immunodeficiency virus and severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus.

LABORATORY OF BACTERIAL INFECTION AND IMMUNITY
  • Research on the pathogenesis of M. tuberculosis
  • Research on the quality of vaccines
  • Research on the immunological diagnosis for M. tuberculosis infection
  • Research on the immunological regulation for maralia infection
  • Research on the immunological regulation for Schistosoma infection

LABORATORY OF VACCINE DEVELOPMENT
To develop prophylactic means and immune-based diagnostics in infectious diseases, including viral hepatitis and influenza.
To explore the mechanism of immunologic memory that is a key component of vaccine efficacy.

LABORATORY OF IMMUNE-BASED THERAPEUTIC INTERVENTION
To develop immune-based therapy in infectious diseases, including mycobacterial diseases, bovine spongiform encephalopathy and schistosomiasis, from the aspect of pathogenesis.
To investigate host molecules that regulate susceptibility/resistance to microbial infection.


DEPARTMENT OF CHEMOTHERAPY AND MYCOSES

The Department of Chemotherapy and Mycoses conducts basic research on the development of preventive and therapeutic strategies to control fungal diseases. Current areas of research include diagnostic methods and therapeutic drugs for infectious fungi, mechanisms of drug-resistance, cellular signal transduction, and immune regulation. We also conduct research on new drug screening methods to isolate, and determine the mechanisms of actions of, novel bioactive molecules using biochemistry, genetics and molecular biology.

LABORATORY OF MYCOSES
  1. Molecular diagnosis and reference services for fungi that cause fungal infections.
  2. Identification and analysis of virulence factors of fungi.
  3. Exploring new molecules for regulation of invasive mycoses.

LABORATORY OF CELL GROWTH CONTROL
  1. Cellular signal transduction and regulatory mechanisms.
  2. Identification of molecular targets for infection control
  3. Screening of bioactive molecules and analysis of molecular mechanisms

LABORATORY OF IMMUNE REGURATION
  1. Screening of regulatory substances for biodefense activity
  2. Biodefense mechanisms against fungal infections

LABORATORY OF ANTIBIOTICS AND ACTINOMYCETOLOGY
  1. Microbial genome analysis and its application to drug discovery
  2. Generation of unnatural bioactive substances
  3. Unraveling drug resistance mechanisms and its application to drug discovery


DEPARTMENT OF BIOCHEMISTRY AND CELL BIOLOGY

This department is engaged in researches on structure and functions of cells by the methods of biochemistry, genetics and cell biology, to develop drugs and diagnosis for infectious, metabolic and genetic diseases.

LABORATORY OF BIOLOGICAL MACROMOLECULES
  • Biochemical and cell biological studies on pathogenic prion.
  • Biochemical confirmatory test for BSE.

LABORATORY OF BIOMEMBRANES
Studies on the metabolism and functions of biomembranes related to infections diseases.

LABORATORY OF CELL FUNCTION
Biochemical and cell biological studies on the functions of host cells in microbial infection.

LABORATORY OF PATHOLOGICAL BIOCHEMISTRY
  • Biochemical studies on infected cells.
  • Molecular biological studies on infectious disease-related signal transductions in mammalian cells.


DEPARTMENT OF MEDICAL ENTOMOLOGY

The activities of the department are focused on basic and applied researches for taxonomy, ecology, physiology, biochemistry, vector-parasite relationship and molecular biology in vector insects of diseases and other insect pests for public health importance. Furthermore, methodological researches on pest management and official bioassay service for insecticides are also included.

LABORATORY OF TAXONOMY AND ECOLOGY
Taxonomy and ecology of medically important insects, and epidemiology of mosquito-borne diseases are the main study fields. This laboratory is the center of taxonomic studies on medically important insects in Japan and giving identification services of insect pests for public health importance.

LABORATORY OF PHYSIOLOGY AND BIOCHEMISTRY
Physiological and biochemical studies on transmission mechanisms by vector insects of arboviruses, malaria parasites and trench fever, Bartonella quintana are carried out by using molecular based techniques. This laboratory monitors insect-borne pathogens and provides technical information.

LABORATORY OF PESTICIDE SCIENCE
Studies on IPM(Integrated Pest Management) and mechanisms of insecticide resistance, official bioassay service for insecticides and maintenance and supply of insect strains.


DEPARTMENT OF VETERINARY SCIENCE

Department of Veterinary Science is engaged in biomedical researches and epidemiological investigations on zoonoses or infectious diseases transmitted from animals to humans. Bacterial and viral zoonoses are of major concern to this Department.

LABORATORY OF RESERVOIR CONTROL OF ZOONOSES
Researches in this laboratory deal with mechanisms of pathogenesis and development of diagnostic method of zoonoses in animal reservoirs.
Host-parasite relationships are studied in molecular and cellular levels as well as in animal levels. Reservoir control is attempted by development of vaccines and therapeutic drugs.

LABORATORY OF TRANSMISSION CONTROL OF ZOONOSES
Researches in this laboratory deal with mechanisms of transmission of pathogens from the animal hosts and environmental conditions to humans.
Studies are conducted in molecular and environmental levels, and transmission control is attempted by elucidation of mechanisms of zoonotic infection and ecology in nature of pathogens.

LABORATORY OF EMERGING ZOONOSES
Researches in this laboratory deal with the control of intrusion of exotic zoonoses from abroad. Sensitive methods are developed by application of advanced technologies and infestation of zoonoses that are absent or rare in Japan diagnosed. Control measures against emerging and re-emerging zoonoses also involve international cooperation.


DEPARTMENT OF SAFETY RESEARCH ON BLOOD AND BIOLOGICAL PRODUCTS

The department is responsible for the safety control tests of blood products, vaccines, antibiotics and other biologics. Evaluation and supply of national standards are also included.
Research projects are directed to the basic study for the safety control technologies and immunological host responses of the above-mentioned products.

LABORATORY OF BLOOD PRODUCTS
Evaluation and control of quality of immunoglobulin preparations and coagulation factors. Studies on quality control of blood products. Development of prevention methods for post-transfusion viral infections.

LABORATORY OF IMMUNOHAEMATOLOGY
Evaluation and control of blood-typing antibodies and anti-HBs immunoglobulins. Evaluation of in vitro diagnostic kits for HBsAg and HCV-related Abs. Establishment of national standard materials required for the evaluation mentioned above. Applied as well as fundamental research on the safety of blood transfusion.

LABORATORY OF PHYSICOCHEMISTRY
Physicochemical evaluation and quality control of biological products and their basic research. Studies regarding the methods of diagnosis and therapy against retroviral infections mediated through blood. Also, research on the development of vaccine and host immune response against the infections.

LABORATORY OF VACCINE AND BLOOD SAFETY
Evaluation and control of abnormal toxicity and pyrogenicity for biological products. Research on development of novel methods for safety evaluation of biological products. Basic scientific research directing for safety improvements of vaccines and of cell therapy using haematopoietic stem cells.


DIVISION OF INTERNATIONAL COOPERATION

The division arranges that NIID provide international cooperative activities for developing countries. The activities involve all arrangements concerning fellowship program foreign trainees, international research projects and foreign aid projects.


DIVISION OF BIOSAFETY CONTROL AND RESEARCH

The Division of Biosafety Control and Research supervises safety control for handling and keeping of pathogenic microorganisms, parasites, toxic substances produced by these organisms, and allergens, which are pathogenic to human beings through biological interactions, and for environment. The Division supervises periodic safety audits on technical methods and equipment, management of BSL3 and BSL4 laboratories, leading to observance of the Safety Code, provision of continuing instructions for biosafety affairs and health care for staffs. The research on biosafety control and collection and offer of information about biorisk management are going on.


DIVISION OF RADIOLOGICAL PROTECTION AND BIOLOGY

The Division of Radiological Protection and Biology supervises the Institute community in all radiation related matters, and regulates radioactive materials to safeguard both the worker and the general public under the law concerning prevention of radiation hazards due to radioisotopes. The division is also responsible for giving specialized training to the worker in the radiological protected area. The research in this division develops and improves basic biology and medical science including molecular biology, biochemistry, physiology and genetics with the application of radioactive materials.


DIVISION OF EXPERIMENTAL ANIMALS RESEARCH

The Division of Experimental Animal Research manages the animal facility keeping laboratory animals used for national tests of biological products and medical researches. In order to control clean state of the facility, microbiological and environmental monitoring is performed periodically. This division researches common infectious diseases of laboratory animals and develops animal models used for the research of infectious diseases.


DIVISION OF QUALITY ASSURANCE

For the purpose of assuring the reliability of the national tests on biological products and antibiotics, the Division of Quality Assurance is responsible for constituting standards and regulation that should be observed during the test procedure, managing the standard materials, and estimating the accuracy and rationality of the test methods. The division is also responsible for the international coordination concerning quality assurance of biological products, e.g. international harmonization of the test methods.


INFECTIOUS DISEASE SURVEILLANCE CENTER

An infectious disease control law was enacted in April 1999 in Japan. The infectious disease control law strengthens infectious disease surveillance system. It is indicated that collection and analysis of information about infectious disease and feedback/dissemination of that information are necessary in infectious disease control and prevention. It is also indicated that both disease surveillance and microbiological surveillance are the essential component for high quality infectious disease surveillance.
Infectious Disease Surveillance Center (IDSC) was established as an extensive of Division of Infectious Disease Epidemiology in 1997, and it has been designated as a National Infectious Disease Surveillance Center. In local or district level, it is encouraged to designate Local Infectious Disease Surveillance Center. The main targets are category 1-5 infectious diseases prescribed in an infectious disease control law. IDSC gets large cooperation from a district/local infectious disease surveillance centers to operate national infectious disease surveillance.

INTELLIGENCE AND POLICY PLANNING DIVISION (DIVISION 1)
Intelligence and Policy Planning Division does make technical advices for several infectious disease control policy issues and epidemiological investigation in cluster / outbreak / abnormality accumulation of an infectious diseases domestically and internationally. This division is also responsible for Field Epidemiology Training Program, Japan (FETP-J).

SURVEILLANCE AND INFORMATION DIVISION (DIVISION 2)
The Surveillance and Information Division conducts collection / analysis of national data on infectious diseases and microbes, and dissemination /feedback of the results. The division gets much cooperation from district infectious disease surveillance centers, local public health institutes and public health centers. The information is disseminated by using our web-page, Infectious Disease Weekly Report (IDWR- distributed on a weekly basis through website), and Infectious Agents Surveillance Report (IASR- monthly basis by printing and home page). An annual data on infectious disease surveillance in Japan is also disseminated by our homepage. These information is provided to infectious disease / public health-related experts, medical care / health administration persons in charge and the general public broadly.

IMMUNIZATION PROGRAM DIVISION (DIVISION 3)
In the Immunization Program Division, sero-epidemiological study against vaccine preventable diseases to understand sero-prevalance in the Japanese population is routinely done. Monitoring for adverse events associated with immunization, disseminating information on accurate information on immunization practice and studies for effective immunization are also the role in this unit. National Serum Reference Bank is managed in this unit.

LABORATORY DIAGNOSIS DIVISION (DIVISION 4)
Microbiological examination for unknown cause infectious (like) illnesses, which are not belonging to other Departments responsibility in NIID, is done in Laboratory Diagnosis Division. The research studies for new technology development for identification on microbes are also taken in this unit.

DIVISION OF BACTERIOLOGICAL LABORATORY TRAINING (DIVISION 5)
Collection, and analysis and feedback of the information on bacterial diseases are performed in this division of a bacterial disease are performed, and information offer is performed. Moreover, it cooperates with a related organizations in and outside the country, and the improvement and standardaize in techniques, etc. of the bateriological diagnosis in public health are supported. Planning and execution of the training course about bacteriological diagnosis, research of the new inspecting method, etc. are done for the personnel of the public organization engaged in public health.

DIVISION OF VIROLOGICAL LABORATORY TRAINING (DIVISION 6)
Collection, and analysis and feedback of the information on virological diseases are performed in this division of a viral disease are performed, and information offer is performed. Moreover, it cooperates with a related organizations in and outside the country, and the improvement and standardaize in techniques, etc. of the virological diagnosis in public health are supported. Planning and execution of the training course about virological diagnosis, research of the new inspecting method, etc. are done for the personnel of the public organization engaged in public health.


AIDS RESEARCH CENTER

Since established in 1988, AIDS Research Center (ARC) has been working on HIV and other retroviruses for retroviral disease control. The principal objective of ARC is to contribute to the control of HIV infection. Along with tuberculosis and malaria, HIV infection is one of the three major infectious diseases in the world, and the importance of HIV containment is a global consensus. Even in Japan,the number of HIV-infected people is increasing.

A comprehensive and consecutive strategy consisting of social prevention activities, vaccines, and therapeutics would be required for the control of HIV infection. Therefore, we are promoting research toward development of a prophylactic AIDS vaccine for global HIV control, improvement of therapeutic regimens for HIV-infected people,and establishment of the basis for countermeasures against HIV prevalence. We believe that progress of these studies would contribute not only to prevention of domestic HIV spread and improvement of QOL and therapeutic regimens for HIV-infected people but also to global control of HIV prevalence.

The center consists of two major research groups and three research divisions Groups I and II are working on HIV prevention and treatment, respectively. Division I is working on epidemiological analysis and Division II on diagnosis technology in HIV and other retrovirus infection. Division III is working on molecular virological analysis of viral replication and related host factors. We are conducting integrated research in collaboration with domestic and international research groups. At the request of JICA, we annually hold a training course, "Laboratory Techniques for Diagnosis and Monitoring of HIV Infection", for researchers and laboratory workers in African and Asian countries.

Research Group I (Group for Vaccine Research & Development)
This group aims at elucidation of the immune mechanism for HIV control using an AIDS model and development of effective AIDS vaccines. An international collaborative project is ongoing toward a clinical trial of a vaccine using Sendai viral vectors.

Research Group II (Group for Therapeutic Research & Clinical Science)
This group aims at improvement of QOL of HIV-infected people and development of novel therapies. For evaluation of current chemotherapy, this group is involved in examination of drug-resistant mutations in HIV genomes with feedback of the results to the respective clinical sectors and analysis of the mechanism of drug resistance.

Division I (Division for Epidemiology)
The main activity of this division is to analyze domestic and international prevalence of HIV and other retrovirus infection. This division is also working on viral genome evolution.

Division II (Division for Diagnosis)
This division is involved not only in official reference activity concerning laboratory diagnosis of infection but also in establishment of accurate diagnosis system able to detect highly-diversified viruses in HIV and other retrovirus infection.

Division III (Division for Molecular Virology)
This division is performing molecular biological, virological, and pathological analyses to determine viral genome/protein structure and function and elucidate the mechanism of viral replication with identification of related host factors in HIV and other retrovirus infection.

To Official Home Page of AIDS Research Center


PATHOGEN GENOMICS CENTER

The center conducts the identification and molecular studies of human genes associated with viral pathogenicity and genomics research on pathogenic viruses and bacteria in humans.

LABORATORY OF MOLECULAR GENETICS
The laboratory conducts the molecular studies of human genes and their products that are associated with viral infection, propagation, toxicity, and oncogenicity. The research also includes the studies of safety evaluation of viral gene-therapy vectors and the development of viral vectors efficient in gene transfer and in the long-term regulated expression of therapeutic genes.

LABORATORY OF VIRAL GENOMICS
The laboratory conducts genomics and proteomics research on pathogenic viruses. The data are used for the construction of Database of Pathogen Genomes for viral nucleotide sequences, viral protein structure and function, and the other information pertinent to the diagnosis and treatment. Appropriate part of the database will be open to the public.

LABORATORY OF BACTERIAL GENOMICS
The laboratory conducts genomics and proteomics research on pathogenic bacteria. The data are used for the construction of Database of Pathogen Genomes for bacterial nucleotide sequences, bacterial protein structure and function, drug-resistance, antigenicity, and the other information pertinent to the diagnosis, epidemiology, and treatment. Appropriate part of the database will be open to the public.


INFLUENZA VIRUS RESEARCH CENTER

The center is involved in fundamental research on influenza and influenza virus, establishment of laboratory diagnosis methods for influenza virus infection, studies on disease development mechanism, and research on prevention and treatment methods.
The center is also engaged in the production and supply of standard and reference products required for quality control of influenza vaccines, and the national assays and examinations of influenza vaccines. The center has been designated as an influenza-collaborating center, an H5 reference laboratory, and an essential regulatory laboratory by the World Health Organization (WHO).

LABORATORY OF INFLUENZA VIRUS SURVEILLANCE
Surveillance on the epidemic and drug-resistant influenza virus strains. Analysis and characterization of influenza virus strains isolated in Japan and overseas. Research related to antigenic or gene diversity.

LABORATORY OF MOLECULAR DIAGNOSIS AND INTERNATIONAL TRAINING
Research and development of diagnostic methods for influenza. Development and pilot production of reagents required. Biological, molecular, genetic and biochemical characterizations of the influenza virus. Reference service related to influenza virus, lectures on influenza-diagnostic technology, international collaboration, and technical support.

LABORATORY OF QUALITY CONTROL OF INFLUENZA VACCINES
Assays and pilot production of influenza-related biological products such as vaccines, production of standard products required for quality control and assays of these products, and scientific research and study required for these services (including reference service and lectures related to these services).
LABORATORY OF PANDEMIC VACCINE DEVELOPMENT
Development of candidate vaccine strains for seasonal and potentially new influenza virus strains, and pilot production and characterization of the required vaccine strains.
LABORATORY OF CELL-BASED VACCINE DEVELOPMENT
Development of cultured cell-based influenza vaccines and its application for practical use. Research on the safety, efficacy and quality controls of the vaccines (including its reference service).
LABORATORY OF MUCOSAL VACCINE DEVELOPMENT
Development of nasal based influenza vaccines and its application for the practical uses. Research on the safety, efficacy and quality controls of the vaccines.


LEPROSY RESEARCH CENTER

Leprosy Research Center focuses on research in mycobacterial diseases including leprosy and tuberculosis. We perform basic fundamental research as well as applied clinical research related to diagnosis, treatment, prevention and epidemiology of the disease. Our research benefits largely from collaborations with other leading Japanese scientists as well as foreign experts. In 2009, our departments have unified and renamed as Department of Mycobacteriology, which has 8 different laboratories listed below. We also perform clinical service for the precise diagnosis and treatment of leprosy. In addition, we also concentrate on training young doctors and scientists from Asian countries especially where mycobacterial diseases are still a major health problem.

LABORATORY l : (MOLECULAR BACTERIOLOGY)
Bacteriologic investigation on mycobacteria; development of vaccines and differential diagnostic methods.

LABORATORY 2 : (PHYSIOLOGY AND BIOCHEMISTRY)
Studies on the metabolic aspects of mycobacteria, nerve damage and treatment of leprosy, especially in terms of the host-mycobacteria interaction.

LABORATORY 3 : (THERAPEUTIC RESEARCH AND DRUG RESISTANCE)
Molecular studies on the virulent factors of mycobacteria and the mechanisms of drug resistance.
LABORATORY 4 : (BIODEFENSE AND VACCINE DEVELOPMENT)
Studies on the pathogenesis of infection and development of therapeutic and preventive tools based on immunological responses.
LABORATORY 5 : (PREVENTION OF DISEASE MANIFESTATION)
Studies on the mechanism involved in the infection of mycobacteria to host cells, including experimental animal studies.
LABORATORY 6 : (INFECTION AND IMMUNOBIOLOGY)
Studies on the persistence of mycobacterial infection, to explore the mechanism of latency, survival and reactivation.
LABORATORY 7 : (MOLECULAR EPIDEMIOLOGY)
Clinical bacteriology of infection and studies on social factors related to infection and epidemiology of the disease.
LABORATORY 8 : (MOLECULAR DIAGNOSTICS)
Pathological study of mycobacterial infection, for the development of immunological diagnostic methods and treatment.


LIBRATY

The library is to collect and preserve books and periodicals in the fields of virology, bacteriology, parasitology, pathology, immunology, epidemiology, etc.
The library contains the editorial office for Japanese Journal of Infectious Diseases, which is published bimonthly by this institute. We welcome contributions related to infectious diseases from any institution in any county. Obtain Instructions to Authors and individual articles on the web page (http://www.nih.go.jp/JJID/jjid.html).